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General Mars Facts



Physical
Mass (kg) 6.421e+23
Mass (Earth = 1) 1.0745e-01
Volume (km3) 1.639e+11
Surface Area (m2) 1.44e+14
Equatorial radius (km) 3397.2
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 5.3264e-01
Polar radius (km) 3375
Volumetric mean radius (km) 3390
Core radius (km) 1700
Ellipticity (flattening) 0.00648
Mean density (gm/cm3) 3.933
Surface gravity (m/s2) 3.69
Escape velocity (km/s) 5.03
GM (x 106 km3/s2) 0.04283
Bond albedo 0.250
Visual geometric albedo 0.15
Visual magnitude V(1,0) -1.52
Solar irradiance (W/m2) 589.2
Topographic range (km) 30
Moment of intertia (I/MR2) 0.366
J2 (x 10^-6) 1960.45
Magnitude (Vo) 2.01
Atmospheric pressure (bars) 0.007

Orbital
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec2) 3.72
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 5.02
Semimajor axis (106 km) 227.92
Sidereal orbit period (days) 686.980
Tropical orbit period (days) 686.973
Perihelion (106 km) 206.62
Aphelion (106 km) 249.23
Mean distance from the Sun (km) 227,940,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 1.5237
Minimum distance from Earth (106 km) 54.5
Maximum distance from Earth (106 km) 401.3
Black body temperature (K) 210.1
Synodic period (days) 779.94
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 24.13
Maximum orbital velocity (km/sec) 26.50
Minimum orbital velocity (km/sec) 21.97
Orbital inclination (degrees) 1.850
Orbital eccentricity (degrees) 0.0934
Rotational period (hours) 24.6229
Rotational period (days) 1.025957
Orbital period (days) 686.98
Tilt of axis (degrees) 25.19

Atmospheric
Surface pressure (mb) 6.1
Surface pressure at Viking site (mb) 6.9 to 9
Surface density (kg/m3) 0.20
Scale height (km) 11.1
Wind speeds at Viking site in summer (m/s) 2 to 7
Wind speeds at Viking site in fall (m/s) 5 to 10
Wind speeds at Viking site in duststorm (m/s) 17 to 30
Mean molecular weight (g/mole) 43.34

Temperate
Average atmospheric temperature (K) 210
Diurnal temperature at Viking site (K) 184 to 242
Minimum surface temperature (C) -140
Mean surface temperature (C) -63
Maximum surface temperature (C) -20

The temperature on Mars varies dramatically.
More information on Martian temperature

compiled by Chris Schubert

For information on the specific periodic elements on Mars, visit the Compositions page.